Massive solar explosion felt on Earth, the moon and Mars simultaneously for the 1st time ever

In a cosmic symphony of events, the sun unleashed a massive burst of plasma and magnetized particles on October 28, 2021. This spectacular solar outburst rippled through space, embracing not just our home planet, but also the moon and Mars in its radiant embrace. A remarkable convergence occurred, as instruments on all three celestial bodies detected the same solar event almost simultaneously, painting a vivid picture of the interconnectedness of our solar system. Mars witnessed the celestial spectacle through the lenses of the European Space Agency’s ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter (TGO) and NASA’s steadfast Curiosity rover. ( The moon, a silent sentinel, felt the touch of the sun’s energy through the Chinese National Space Administration’s Chang’e-4 and NASA’s Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO). Closer to Earth, the German Aerospace Center’s Eu:CROPIS satellite caught the solar waves from its perch in low Earth orbit.

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This extraordinary cosmic dance was meticulously documented and has now been unveiled in the pages of the journal Geophysical Research Letters, revealing the harmony of celestial bodies responding to the sun’s fiery outpouring. ( The significance of this phenomenon, known as coronal mass ejections (CMEs), reaches beyond the realms of astronomy. ( As humanity sets its sights on ambitious space exploration missions, including the dream of a Martian habitat and a scientific haven on the moon, comprehending and mitigating the effects of these solar tempests becomes crucial. ( ( (

On Earth, our magnetic shield acts as a guardian, deflecting the brunt of dangerous solar emissions. However, the moon and Mars lack this protective mantle, leaving them vulnerable to the sun’s fiery wrath. This makes understanding CMEs and their impacts pivotal for the safety of future astronauts who dare venture beyond our planet. ( The radiation accompanying CMEs can have a profound impact on human health. The 2014 study published in the journal Life highlighted how exposure to high doses of radiation can result in skin irritation, nausea, blood disorders, weakened immunity, and even cancer. In acute instances, radiation can manifest as burns and neurological damage, making the challenges of space travel daunting.

Thankfully, the CME that graced the cosmic stage on October 28, 2021, was relatively mild, with a radiation dose of around 31 milligray. ( To put this into perspective, dangerous radiation exposure hovers around 700 milligray. ( Yet, caution is warranted as the sun’s 11-year solar activity cycle hurtles toward its peak, potentially beginning by the end of 2023. ( During this crescendo, CMEs are anticipated to intensify and occur more frequently, heightening the risk for spacefarers.

The intricate interplay of radiation with different celestial bodies has offered valuable insights. ( Earth’s magnetosphere and atmosphere combined forces, reducing the radiation’s impact by the time it reached our planet’s surface. ( Mars, bolstered by its protective atmosphere, experienced a mere one-30th of the initial radiation dose. However, the moon, bereft of such safeguards, bore the brunt, absorbing over half of the radiation from the CME. (

This cosmic ballet, though awe-inspiring, underscores the urgency for safeguarding our brave spacefarers. The moon, once a mere shimmer in the night sky, has transformed into a potential frontier for humanity’s expansion. ( Mars beckons with the allure of discovery and the dreams of inhabiting another world. ( As humanity gears up for these monumental leaps, understanding radiation and devising protective measures becomes paramount. This momentous task unites scientists, engineers, and visionaries in a shared mission of securing the future of space exploration. (

As we journey through the cosmos of possibilities, let us invite you, our esteemed readers, to share your thoughts and reflections in the comments section below. ( The quest for the stars requires not just the brilliance of scientific minds, but the collective wisdom of all who ponder the mysteries of our universe. The harmonious alignment of the moon, Mars, and Earth serves as a poignant reminder that as we reach for the heavens, we must also anchor our aspirations in the safety of knowledge and preparation.

Yael Wolfe

Writer, photographer, artist, and big, bad wolf. I’m a writer, photographer, and artist. I use my work to explore what it means to be a woman in this world.

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